SYMBOLISM AND COINCIDENCES OF THE GREAT PYRAMID
by Tim G. Hunkler [click HERE for info on contacting me]
last revised: 07-Jul-2004

This web topic presents a summary of the various geometric, geophysical, astronomical, numerical, and prophetic interpretations made by explorers, authors, and visitors to the Great Pyramid over the last 200+ years. These interpretations run the range of believability from topics such as the Great Pyramid having been used as a sundial, to the calculation of the speed of light, to the prediction of the exact dates of the birth of Adam, the Exodus, and the birth, baptism, and crucifixion of Jesus.

Let me state my personal belief that I tend to agree with a number of pyramid and pyramidology authors who say that if you look at the sum total of all of the possible symbolisms encoded in the Great Pyramid, and that even if only 10% of this information was truly intended (and you pick any 10% subset), then even this 10% is beyond a coincidence! Therefore, to achieve the simultaneous design goals which seem to be encoded by the Great Pyramid, would require the ability to modify the size and shape of the earth, the position of planets, and even the solar system. In short, this would require divine powers and therefore the existence of the Great Pyramid implies that God exists. Having said this, this is about all the personal opinion of mine you'll find on this web page. The remaining information is not my own, but merely the collection of pieces of information from the works of others who I hope I have fairly credited. The collection of this data has been a multi-year project. I hope you find some value in this information collection.

NOTE 1: In the text that follows references are denoted as [nn:pp] where "nn" is a document number as listed on my web page Pyramid Book References and "pp" is the page from that reference.

NOTE 2: {green text in curly braces are my editors notes, comments, and calculations}


FOREWORD

In 1977 I first became interested in the Great Pyramid while writing a high school english paper on the subject. At that time, "pyramid power" was a brief fad. My research with materials available at that time convinced me that the Great Pyramid was not a pharaoh's tomb. The seed was planted and lay dormant until mid 1994 when my interest was rekindled listening to a radio talk show featuring John Zajac [11:]. Since that time I have once again picked up the investigation by additional reading. This document is my attempt at a collection of symbolisms that others have found encoded within the shape, dimensions, location, and orientation of the Great Pyramid and it's inner chambers

The first topic deals with the custom units of measure that are typically used when discussing the Great Pyramid. Namely, the "Pyramid Inch", whose discovery is credited to Sir Isaac Newton in the 1600's

The topic of construction and dimensions is admittedly somewhat boring as it deals with lengths and widths and other such measures. However, it is a necessary foundation for the later topics which use this data to reveal the various symbolisms

The topic of secret rooms is presented mainly because it is one of my personal favorites. Secret rooms in castles, haunted houses, and pyramids excites the imagination of youth. The intrigue of finding a secret room still remains for me

The topic of geometric relations is next and here is where things start to get interesting. Multiple geometric properties are referenced including Pi, Phi, and the Pythagorean Theorem

The next topic is geophysical and astronomical relations and this is where I think you might start to agree that there are just too many relations presented to be "coincidence". It is helpful to keep in mind that the Great Pyramid was constructed over 4000 years ago, when most cultures of the world were living in mud or stone structures, had no plumbing, written language, schooling, or medicine. Math capabilities consisted mostly of adding and subtracting. The earth was considered flat. The sun and stars were thought to revolve around the earth, and the modern calendar did not exist

Following the geophysical and astronomical relations is the numerical relations. This adds more data to the argument that the design and construction was not an accident or coincidence

The next section deals with prophecies, based on the lengths of the various chambers and a translation of one pyramid inch to one year. This is by far a topic which can be of much controversy. More exists on this topic than I have presented here and I have only begun to scratch the surface with this collection. Further investigation is possible and numerous references are provided in case you are interested.

The miscellaneous section is where I have collected some related tidbits of information concerning Egyptian culture and historical aspects.

The final section is reference constants. Here I have collected physical and astronomical measures from modern day scientific sources. You can compare these modern day numbers with those presented or calculated elsewhere in the text using pyramid symbolisms.

And finally, a few diagrams, a list of book references, and a few book reviews relating to the general Great Pyramid topic.


QUICK-LINK TOPIC INDEX:

  • Custom Units of Measure
  • Construction and Dimensions
  • Secret Rooms
  • Geometric Relations
  • Geophysical and Astronomical Relations
  • Numerical Relations
  • Prophecies
  • Miscellaneous
  • Reference Constants
  • Reference Sources


    BEST QUOTE

    In all my years of reading, and in all the books I have studied, I think the statement below by William Fix in his book "Pyramid Odyssey" best sums up what we know about the Great Pyramid:

    ...men are capable of perceiving the Pyramid in an astonishing number of ways. Some have thought the Pyramid was an astronomic and astrological observatory. Some have thought it functioned as the equivalent of a theodolite for surveyers in ancient times... Some think it performed as a giant sundial... Some think it records the mathematics and science of a civilization which vanished... Some think it is a huge water pump. Others have thought it was filled with fabulous treasures... One early investigator came away convinced it was the remains of a huge volcano. Another thought the pyramids were Joseph's granaries. Some thought they were heathen idols wich should be destroyed. Some believe the Pyramid captures powerfule cosmic energies... Some think it is a tomb. Some think it is a Bible in stone with prophecies buld into the scheme of its internal passages... Some think it was a mammoth public works project which consolidated the position of the pharaoh and the unity of the nation. Some think it was built by beings from outer space. Some say it was a temple of initiation. Some hold that it was an instrument of science. Some believe it is an altar of Guild built through direct Divine Revelation. And today, judging by the uses to which it has been put, some apparently think it is an outhouse.

    I think the final line of the quote is both funny and accurate, and to this I will add that some believe the Pyramid is the best tourist attraction and cash cow they could ask for.


    CUSTOM UNITS OF MEASURE

    [11:149] - The American inch = 25.400508001 mm and the British inch = 25.399978 mm.

    [11:150] - The sacred Jewish, or pyramid, inch = 1.001081 American inch = 1.00106 British inch.

    [14:2] - The pyramid inch "PI" = 1.0011 present inches, and 1.0010846752 British inches [4:164]

    [11:151] - Use of the pyramid inch is attributed to Sir Isaac Newton, who discovered that many of the measurements of the pyramid would be in whole numbers if this unit were used.

    [14:6] - The English inch was originally the same as the pyramid inch during the time of Queen Elizabeth.

    [14:1] - The pyramid cubit or "Sacred Cubit" = 25 pyramid inches.

    [4:255] - The mean density of the earth is about 5.7 times that of water at 68 degrees F. and a barometric pressure of 30.00 PI of mercury.

    [4:255] - All of the courses of masonry in the King's Chamber have 23 or more stones, except the 5th course, which has only 7 (5,7 -> 5.7).

    [4:257] - The Pyramid Pint is 28.5 (5 * 5.7) cubic pyramid inches of water.

    [4:257] - The Pyramid Pound is 5 cubic pyramid inches of earth matter of average density.

    [4:257] - A Pyramid Pint weighs one Pyramid Pound.

    [4:257] - A Pyramid Ton is 2500 Pyramid Pints or 2500 x 5 cubic pyramid inches of average density earth matter. {(12500 cubic PI) * (1.003246507 cu inch / cubic PI) * (90.620464 gram / cu inch) * (1 kg / 1000 grams) = 1136.4333 kg}

    [4:257] - A cubic pyramid cubit of average density earth matter weighs 1.25 Pyramid Tons. {(25 x 25 x 25 cubic PI / 1 cubic pyramid cubit) * (Pyramid Ton / 2500 x 5 cubic PI) = 1.25 Pyramid Ton / cubic Cubit}

    [4:257] - The coffer in the King's Chamber has a volume equal to 1 Pyramid Ton.

    [4:116] - The Pyramid Mile is 2917.46356+ cubits or 6084.6418 ft. {mile = 5280 ft., British nautical mile = 6080 ft.}


    CONSTRUCTION AND DIMENSIONS

    [18:xiii] To date, archaeologists have located 98 pyramids in Egypt, all of which are located on the West Bank of the Nile. None on East side.

    [18:245] - The Great Pyramid has been dated as circa 2770 B.C.

    [11:161] - The pyramid was built in 2623 B.C.

    [68:35] - The pyramid was built circa 2450 B.C. according to star alignment data for the 4 air shafts of the King and Queen's chambers.

    [117:306] - In 1986 a study was conducted in which mortar samples were collected for carbon-14 dating. Two samples were tested at the Southern Methodist University in Dallas and thirteen samples were tested in labs in Zurich using an accelerator. The resulting dates give an age of somewhere between 3809 B.C. and 2869 B.C., a figure which is some 400-500 years older than dates accepted by the majority of egyptologists.

    [117:116] - In video footage of the robotic exploration of the northern shaft of the Queen's Chamber two small objects are visible: a metallic hook and a small baton of wood. Retrieval of the wool would be invaluable for additional carbon dating.

    [14:75] - At the time the pyramid was built there was no written language (only hieroglyphics).

    [11:150] - The pyramid is the most comprehensively surveyed building in the world.

    [14:70] - The Giza Plateau has a fairly level granite bedrock base, in essence, a flat topped mountain. Other regions near the Great Pyramid could not have supported the immense weight of the structure.

    [70:68] - The Great Pyramid is at the northern edge of the Giza plateau and close to the cliff there. Much of the rubble and debris from construction was dumped over the cliff and actually acts to strengthen the cliff from crumbling due to the tremendous weight and closeness of the Great Pyramid.

    [14:40] - There is so much stone mass in the pyramid that the interior temperature is constant and equals the average temperature of the earth, 68 degrees Fahrenheit.

    [14:60] - The pyramid is estimated to have 2,300,000 stone blocks weighing from 2-30 tons each with some weighing as much as 70 tons.{conflicts with [5:20]}

    [5:20] - Computer calculations estimate 590,712 stone blocks used in construction.

    [11:143] - Two types of limestone were used for construction. A soft limestone either pure or nummulitic was used for the bulk of the core blocks and a hard white limestone for the mantle. Hard limestone becomes more polished with age.

    [11:139] - The base of the pyramid covers 13.6 acres with each side greater than 5 acres in area.

    [14:76] - The outer mantle was composed of 144,000 casing stones, all highly polished and flat to an accuracy of 1/100th of an inch, about 100 inches thick and weighing about 15 tons each with nearly perfect right angles for all six sides. also [11:146]

    [5:52] - Computer calculations indicated 40,745 casing stones were used averaging 40 tons each before the face angle was cut.

    [18:71] - The average casing stone on the lowest level was 5 ft. long by 5 ft. high by 6 ft. deep and weighed 15 tons.

    [14:78] - The casing stones weighing as much as 20 tons were placed with an accuracy of 5/1000ths of an inch, and an intentional gap of about 2/100ths of an inch for mortar.

    [5:52] - Assuming 590,712 blocks and a build time of 20 years an average of 81 blocks per day would need to be placed. Using 10 work crews per side of the pyramid, each work crew would need to place 2 blocks per day.

    [14:79] - The mortar used is of an unknown origin. It has been analyzed and it's chemical composition is known but it can't be reproduced. It is stronger than the stone and still holding up today.

    [14:74] - The cornerstone foundations of the pyramid have ball and socket construction capable of dealing with heat expansion and earthquakes. Click to see a diagram

    [4:5] - The four corner sockets are at different heights. The vertical distance between the highest and lowest is 17 inches. The reference point known as the "mean socket level", or base level, is generally used as the reference for height and perimeter measurements.

    [4:5] - The "sidereal socket level" is the mean of just the SW and SE socket heights.

    [11:151] - The length of a base is 9131 PI from corner to corner in a straight line.

    [4:5] - The length of a base side at the base socket level is 9131 pyramid inches or 365.24 pyramid cubits.

    [4:5] - The length of a base side at sidereal socket level is 9131.4 pyramid inches or 365.256+ pyramid cubits.

    [4:7] - The length of the perimeter at the sidereal socket level is 36525.63629+ pyramid inches.

    [4:9] - 201 complete courses of masonry remain with remnants of 2 more at the summit. The top surface is 5478 pyramid inches above the mean socket level. Another 335 pyramid inches higher is the geometric apex formed by the corner edges of the projected mantle.

    [70:151] - The 35th course of stones is roughly 50 inches tall, nearly twice the height of the previous courses. The height of the 35th course = 1162.6 PI from ground or the length of the Antechamber x 10.

    [4:10] - The capstone is thought to have been intact about 100 B.C. since no mention of its absence was recorded by the historian Diodorus Siculus.

    [14:25] - The capstone of the pyramid is thought to have always been absent. {conflicts with [4:10]}

    [4:22] - The capstone is thought to have been an exact replica of the large pyramid on a scale of 1 to sqrt(Pi)/100. The ratio of any corresponding pyramid dimension over the capstone dimension, when multiplied by the square root of Pi equals 100.

    [4:11] - The estimated height of the capstone is about 103.03+ pyramid inches and about 6-1/2 cubits on a side.

    [14:62] - The height of the pyramid to the missing apex formed by extending the sides is 5813 PI.

    [4:7] - The perfect formula height of the pyramid including the missing apex is 5813.2355653763+ PI, calculated from perimeter of base (sidereal socket level) divided by 2 Pi.

    [11:151] - The height to the missing apex is 5812.98 PI.

    [14:63] - The height of the pyramid without the capstone is 5496 PI. {conflicts with [4:9]}

    Click for larger picture

    [14:28] - The four faces of the pyramid are slightly concave, the only pyramid to have been built this way.

    [18:65] - The centers of the four sides are indented with an extraordinary degree of precision forming the only 8 sided pyramid. The effect is not visible from the ground or from a distance but only from the air, and then only under the proper lighting conditions.

    [18:310] - The 5 angles of the Great Pyramid are: edge to edge of face at apex = 76:17:13.2 (deg,min,sec), edge to diagonal edge at apex = 96:3:0.0, dihedral or face to face parallel to base = 112:25:39.4, edge to base = 41:59:50.5, face to base = 51:51:14.3. The face to base angle is the angle of the casing stones.

    [11:161] - The Great Pyramid is the only pyramid to have chambers above ground level. {not true, for example Bent Pyramid of Sneferu (Khufu's father), Red pyramid at Dashur}

    [18:310] - The volume of the pyramid is: V = 1/3 base area x height = 161,559,817,000 cubic PI = 10,339,828.3 cubic pyramid cubits. {(5813.2355653 PI)/3 * 9131 PI * 9131 PI}

    [0:1] - The length of the Great Pyramid's corner edges are 8688.00 PI.

    [0:2] - The slant face height of the Great Pyramid's sides are 7391.72 PI.

    [0:3] - The area of the base covers 13.3 acres or 83,375,161 sq. PI.

    [0:4] - The area of each face covers 5.4 acres or 33,743,610 sq PI.

    [14:46] - The angle of the Descending Passage is 26 deg, 18 min, 9.5 sec or about 26.30 degrees.

    [11:151] - The passages are straight to within 0.013 in. per 100 ft.

    Descending Passage.Click on pic for full size

    [4:162] - The dimensions of the Descending Passage are 4535 PI in length, 41.524 PI in width, and 36.197 PI in height.

    [4:97] - The length of the Ascending passage from the junction of the Descending Passage to the Grand Gallery is 1543.46451 PI.

    [4:96] - The length of the Grand Gallery is 1881.5985600+ PI, and its width just above the ramp stones is 82.41 PI.

    [11:165] - Grand Gallery is 28 feet high by 1881-1/3 PI long.

    [4:97] - The length of the horizontal passage to the Queen's Chamber is 1521.31136 PI.

    [102:12] - The name "Queen's Chamber" is considered a misnomer by Egyptologists since no queens have ever been found in pharaoh's pyramids.

    [4:94] - The volume of the Queen's Chamber is 9,963,200 cubic PI.

    [70:140] - Dimensions of the King's Chamer in PI: 412.132 x x 230.243 H

    [14:39] - Dimensions of the King's Chamber in PI: 413 L x 206 W x 228 H {conflicts with [36:266]}

    [4:266] - Height of King's Chamber is 230.388 PI.

    [70:119] - The lowest course of blocks in the King's Chamber appears 5 PI shorter than the rest because the floor is raised above the base of the walls. The height of the walls is then 235.243 PI.

    [4:12] - There are 100 blocks making up the walls of the King's Chamber in 5 courses.

    [4:221] - Antechamber to King's Chamber: 116.26471 PI length (103.03292 PI is granite), 149.44644 PI high

    [4:255] - Coffer measurements: volume = 71250 cubic PI, interior length = 77.8141353+ PI, interior width = 26.6836336+ PI, interior depth = 34.3147946+ PI, exterior length (at top) = 89.94438003 PI, exterior length (at bottom) 89.6578860 PI, exterior width = 38.67063162 PI, exterior height = 41.21316892, side and end thickness = 5.99349900 PI, bottom thickness = 6.89837429 PI.

    [39:68] - The granite coffer in the King's Chamber is too big to fit through the passages and so it must have been put in place during construction.

    [11:159] - Microscopic analysis of the coffer reveals that it was made with a fixed point drill that used hard jewel bits and a drilling force of 2 tons.

    [70:111] - The coffer was sawed out of a block of solid granite. This would have required bronze saws 8-9 ft. long set with teeth of sapphires. Hollowing out of the interior would require tubular drills of the same material applied with a tremendous vertical force.

    [18:110] - Although the walls of the Queen's Chamber are of finished stone, the floor is rough and unfinished. Many believe the room to have been abandoned as the intended pharaoh's burial room as the King's Chamber was completed. The horizontal passage to the Queen's Chamber still bears faint red ocher construction lines along its entire 150 foot length. The horizontal passage is also rough and unfinished.

    [18:110] - The Queen's Chamber has a gabled roof and the King's Chamber a flat roof. It was long a custom for Egyptians to bury their women in rooms with gabled roofs but to bury men in rooms with flat ceilings.

    [42:65] - The casing stones for the Great Pyramid were cut in quarries from Tura and Masara located on the east bank of the Nile on outskirts of Cairo.

    [18:72] - The Great Pyramid had a swivel door entrance at one time. Swivel doors were found in only two other pyramids: Khufu's father and grandfather, Sneferu and Huni, respectively.

    [11:157] - It is reported that when the pyramid was first broken into that the swivel door, weighing some 20 tons, was so well balanced that it could be opened by pushing out from the inside with only minimal force, but when closed, was so perfect a fit that it could scarcely be detected and there was not enough crack or crevice around the edges to gain a grasp from the outside.

    [102:9] - The original entrance was located on the north face, about 49 feet above the base and 24 feet east of the central axis of the north face.

    [18:82] - The Grand Gallery contains two grooves, one in the east wall and one in the west wall. They are 7 inches high, 1 inch deep, and 5 inches up from the 3rd overlapping corbel. They run the entire length of the gallery. Click for a diagram

    [68:45] - Of all the pyramids, only the Great Pyramid has "air shafts". The King's Chamber has 2, about 5 inches in diameter which connect to the exterior. The Queen's Chamber has 2 which stopped just short of the walls of the chamber and which do not penetrate completely to the exterior. The cross section of these shafts are sometimes oval, sometimes domed, and sometimes rectangular. Click to see a diagram

    [14:58] - There are no hieroglyphics or writings in the Great Pyramid. The only symbols are some graphics on the wall of the Room of Chaos.

    [117:102] - "Quarry Marks" exist in the relieving chambers above the King's Chamber, including one mark which is reported to indicate Khufu, the pharaoh under whose reign the Great Pyramid was built. One source suggests that these quarry marks were faked by Howard Vyse in 1837. The reasons give are many, but the main ones are: These marks appear only in the 4 relieving chambers opend by Vyse and not in the original relieving chamber opened by Davison in 1765. Vyse's diary for that day described a thorough examination of the relieving rooms but no mention of the hieroglyphics and quarry marks. The marks were mentioned only the next day, when Vyse returned with witnesses. There are problems with the hieroglyphics in that they are a mixture of styles and syntax/usage from differing time periods of Egypt. And finally, in the marks bearing Khufu's name, mistakes were made. Those same mistakes occur in the only two hieroglyphics references that would have been available to Vyse at that time.

    [102:154] - Each of the ceiling stones in the Grand Gallery were individually removable. The Great Pyramid could have functioned as a stellar observatory during its construction.

    [70:302] - There are 36 ceiling stones in the roof of the Grand Gallery.

    [4:258] - Taking average earth density as 1.0, the average density of the core limestone blocks is 0.412, the limestone casing blocks is 0.367, the granite of the King's Chamber is 0.479.

    [4:258] - The estimate for the average density of the pyramid as a whole, taking into account the different type and quantities of stone as well as the hollow chambers is 0.4078994+ times that of the average earth density (taken as 1.0).

    [117:112] - In 1872, Waynmon Dixon was opening the shafts of the Queen's chamber, which originally stopped 5 inches short of the final block in the walls of the Queen's Chamber. In the northern shaft, he found three items: a rough stone sphere, a small two pronged hook made out of some metal, and a fine piece of cedar wood some 12" long with some strange notches cut into it. These were sent to England a short time later and were lost until 1993, when they were re-located in storage in the British Museum. The wood, however, was missing.


    SECRET ROOMS

    click on thumbnail for the large shot

    [68:173] - Sixty-five meters up the southern shaft of the Queen's Chamber is a miniature portcullis slab discovered by a robotic camera in 1993. Attached are two copper fittings, one broken. This area of the shaft is lined with Tura limestone, which is typically used in pyramids only for lining chambers.

    [18:103] - In the King's Chamber all of the stone joints are very tight except in the lower left-hand corner of the west wall. Here the joints are larger than normal and covered by mortar. This is a strong indication of an opening to another chamber or passage. The Egyptian government has refused requests for further exploration. See a diagram

    [18:104] - In 1986 a French team using microgravimeter equipment detected small hidden cavities behind the west wall of the horizontal passage to the Queen's Chamber. They were permitted to bore a 1" diameter hole and found a cavity filled with sand. They were not permitted to dig or tunnel for further investigation.

    [18:105] - The cavities in the horizontal passage to the Queen's Chamber correspond to two floor stones in this passageway with joints perpendicular to the rest of the joints in the floor stones. This type of indicator can also be found at the junction of the descending and ascending passageways.

    [18:276] - About 70 feet along the north side of the Great Pyramid from the northeast corner is a 4x10 ft stone sunk into the foundation at an angle. The joints are very precise and this is the only stone in the foundation perimeter not at a right angle to normal construction. It would have been covered by the mantle but is now accessible since the mantle is gone. It is very likely an entrance. No further investigation has been done. See a diagram

    [14:72] - It has long been believed that the Sphinx had subterranean tunnels leading to each of the three major pyramids. In October, 1994, a passage leading to a subterranean area beneath the Sphinx was re-discovered. Further investigation is expected in February of 1995.

    [88:101] - In 1987 a Japenese team used an electromagnetic wave method to search for cavities in the Great Pyramid. They identified a cavity under the horizontal passage to the Queen's Chamber about 1.5 meters beneath and extending for 2.5-3.0 meters in depth. They also identified a cavity behind the western part of the northern wall of the Queen's Chamber. They identified no cavities within the King's chamber, possibly due to the denser granite walls. Three potential cavities were identified in the area of the Sphinx.

    [117:117] - In 1988 a Japanese team lead by Professor Yoshimura detected a cavity off the Queen's Chamber passageway very near to where the French team drilled in 1986. They also detected a large cavity behind the NW wall of the Queen's Chamber and a sign of a tunnel outside of the pyramid, which appeared to run underneath the structure. Egyptian authorities intervened and halted the project. The team has not been allowed to return to complete the project.

    [117:50] - In October of 1992, Professor Jean Kerisal was part of a team conducting ground penetrating radar and microgravimetric measurements in the Pit and horizontal passage connecting the bottom of the descending passage. Results in the Pit were not conclusive but were extremely promising in the horizontal chamber. A structure was detected under the floor of the horizontal passage. A second structures was detected on the western side of the passageway about 6 meters before the entrance to the chamber. Soundings seem to indicate a vertical shaft 1.4 x 1.4 meters and at least 5 meters deep very close to the western wall of the passage. This could be either a natural chamber in the limestone or a completely separate passageway system.


    GEOMETRIC RELATIONS

    [14:57] - The information symbolized within the Great Pyramid is repeated multiple times.

    [14:13] - The ratio of the diagonal of the pyramid's base to it's height = 20:9

    [14:14] - The slope of the angle of the pyramid's corners are in the ratio of 9:10

    [14:16] - The length of the Antechamber to the King's Chamber = 1/50th the height of the pyramid.

    [14:24] - Value of Pi: The perimeter of the base divided by twice the height = Pi to 5 decimal places {9131*4/5813*2 = 3.141579+}

    [18:126] - The relationship of Pi between the circumference and diameter of a circle was thought to have been first reported in 300 B.C. by the Greek mathematician Archimedes.

    [70:140] - Value of Pi: The perimeter of the north or south wall of the King's Chamber divided by the length of the wall = Pi {(230.38+5.0+412.12)*2 / 412.12 = 3.14}

    [18:126] - Value of Phi: - The ratio of the apothem (face slant height) to half a base side = Phi (1.618). Phi is another transcendental number like Pi which has no exact value (approximate value = 1.6181818...). The unique properties of Phi are that phi +1 = phi squared and also 1 + 1/phi = phi. The Phi ratio is the basis for the Fibonacci sequence 1,1,2,3,5,8,13.,21,34... which was not generally publicized until 1200 A.D.

    [18:194] - There is evidence that the Egyptians had worked out a relationship between Pi and Phi of: Pi = 6/5ths of (Phi)**2.

    [18:126] - If the height of the pyramid is taken as the radius of a circle, then the circumference of this circle is the same as the perimeter of the base. This provided the complimentary squaring of a circle and circling of a square. The key to this relationship is knowledge of the value of Pi and designing the angle of the pyramid to be exactly 51 degrees, 51 minutes, and 14.3 seconds.

    [14:18] - The length of the King's Chamber in pyramid inches used as the diameter of a circle produces a circle with area equal to the area of the base of the pyramid if that area is expressed in Sacred Cubits.

    [18:102] - The Pythagorean relationship represented by a 3-4-5 right triangle is displayed in the dimensions of the King's Chamber. The east wall diagonal is 309", the length is 412", and the long central diagonal is 515". However, the Pythagorean relation was not identified until 497 B.C.

    [18:102] - In the King's Chamber, the stone over the entrance is the only stone in the walls that is two courses high. It represents a 3-4-5 Pythagorean relationship by its measure of 124"L x 93"H x 155" diagonal.

    [4:263] - The coffer's mean length is the same as the width of the King's Chamber minus the length of the antechamber.

    [4:265] - The external height of the coffer is 1/10th the length of the King's Chamber.

    [4:266] - The top of the coffer has an inset to hold the lid. The inset forms a rectangle of 80.949+ PI by 34.244+ PI. The perimeter of this rectangle is the same as the height of the King's Chamber {230.388 PI}.

    [70:109] - The coffer's interior volume is 1/2 of it's exterior volume.


    GEOPHYSICAL AND ASTRONOMICAL RELATIONS

    [11:151] - The information encoded into the Great Pyramid is repeated multiple times.

    [11:143] - With the mantle in place, the Great Pyramid could be seen from the mountains in Israel and probably the moon as well. It's polished surfaces would have reflected light like a beacon.

    [14:59] - Mean Earth Temperature: The average temperature of Egypt equals the average temperature of earth = avg. temperature of Queen's Chamber = 68 degrees Fahrenheit.

    [102:122] - With the original surrounding courtyards and temples in place, the pyramid was used as a sundial.

    [14:9] - The pyramid was used to indicate solstices and equinoxes.

    [4:114] - The pyramid is located at 29 degrees, 58 minutes, 51.06 seconds north latitude, and 31 degrees, 9 minutes, and 0.0 seconds east longitude.

    [4:111] - Marks Spring Equinox: Due to the angle of the sides of the pyramid vs. it's latitude, it casts no shadow at noon during the spring equinox.

    [14:72] - Aligned True North: The Great Pyramid is the most accurately aligned structure in existence and faces true north with only 3/60th of a degree of error. The position of the North Pole moves over time and the pyramid was probably exactly aligned at one time.

    [14:71] - Center of Land Mass: The Great Pyramid is located at the center of the land mass of the earth. The east/west parallel that crosses the most land and the north/south meridian that crosses the most land intersect in two places on the earth, one in the ocean and the other at the Great Pyramid.

    [4:5] - Tropical Year or Calendar Year: The length of a base side is 9131 pyramid inches measured at the mean socket level, or 365.24 pyramid cubits, which is the number of days in a year. {9131/25 = 365.24, accurate to 5 digits}

    [14:3] - Tropical Year: - The perimeter of the base divided by 100 = 365.24, the number of days in a year. {9131 PI * 4 / 100, accurate to 5 digits}

    [14:17] - Tropical Year: The length of the Antechamber used as the diameter of a circle produces a circumference of 365.242. {accurate to 6 digits}

    [4:251] - Tropical Year: - The length of the granite portion of the floor of the antechamber to the King's Chamber times 2*sqrt(Pi) = 365.242

    [4:96] - Tropical Year: The ratio of the lengths of the Grand Gallery to the solid diagonal of the King's Chamber times 100 equals the number of days in a tropical year. {(1881.5985600 / 51.516461) * 100 = 365.242200, accurate to 8 digits}

    [4:222] Sidereal Year: - The length of the antechamber of the King's Chamber times Pi = length of a sidereal year { 116.26471 PI * 3.14159 = 365.25636 days, accurate to 8 digits}

    [4:5] - Sidereal Year: The length of a base side at sidereal socket level is 365.256+ pyramid cubits. {accurate to 6 digits}

    [4:94] - Synodical Month: The "unit dimension" for the Queen's Chamber is 92.173077+ PI. The number of days in the moon's synodical month can be found from: 10 * U.D. = 10 * Pi * SM - 6, where SM is the days and 6 represents "man's" number. {921.73077 = 10*3.14159*SM - 6, SM = 29.5305882 days = 29days, 12hrs, 44min, 2.76 sec, accurate to 9 digits}

    [4:97] - Synodical Month: Ten times the ratio of the lengths of the Grand Gallery to the Horizontal Passage equals the ratio of a tropical year to a synodical month. {10 * (1881.5985600 / 1521.31136) = 1.236826733; 365.2422 / 29.5305882= 1.236826702, the same to 8 digits}

    [4:97] - Synodical Month: - The ratio of the lengths of the Grand Gallery to the Ascending Passage is 1/10th the ratio of the day's in the Bible's prophetic year (360) to the days in the moon's synodical month. {1881.5985600 / 1543.46451 = 0.1 * (360/SM), SM = 29.53059357+, accurate to 8 digits}

    [14:11] - Mean Distance to the Sun: The height of the pyramid times 10**9 = avg. distance to sun. {5813.2355653 * 10**9 * (1 mi / 63291.58 PI) = 91,848,500 mi}

    [14:12] - Mean Distance to the Sun: Half of the length of the diagonal of the base times 10**6 = average distance to the sun

    [4:7] - Mean Distance to Sun: The height of the pyramid times 10**9 represents the mean radius of the earth's orbit around the sun, or Astronomical Unit. { 5813.235565376 pyramid inches x 10**9 = 91,848,816.9 miles}

    [4:106] - Mean Distance to Moon: ] The length of the Jubilee passage times 7 times 10**7 is the mean distance to the moon. {215.973053 PI * 7 * 10**7 = 1.5118e10 PI = 238,865 miles }

    [4:267] - Sun's Radius: Twice the perimeter of the bottom of the granite coffer times 10**8 is the sun's mean radius. { 270.45378502 PI* 10**8 = 427,316 miles}

    [14:19] - Earth's Polar Radius: The Sacred Cubit times 10**7 = polar radius of the earth (distance from North Pole to earth's center) {25 PI * 10**7 * (1.001081 in / 1 PI) * (1 ft / 12 in) * (1 mi/ 5280 ft) = 3950 miles }

    [117,38] - Earth's Polar Radius: The Pyramid embodies a scale ratio of 1/43200. The height * 43200 = 3938.685 miles, which is the polar radius of the earth to within 11 mi.

    [11:153] Radius of the Earth: The curvature designed into the faces of the pyramid exactly matches the radius of the earth.

    [117,38] Equatorial Circumference of the Earch: The Pyramid embodies a scale ratio of 1/43200. The perimeter of the base * 43200 = 24,734.94 miles, which is within 170 miles of the equatorial circumference of the earth.

    [14:21] - Precession of the Equinoxes: The sum of the pyramid's two base diagonals in PI = length of the Precession of the Equinoxes (~25827 years)

    [14:22] - Precession of the Equinoxes: The distance from the ceiling of the King's Chamber to the apex of the pyramid = 4110.5 PI. Which is the radius of a circle whose circumference = the precession of the equinoxes. {4110.5 * 2 * Pi = 25827}

    [102:113] - Precession of the Equinoxes: The perimeter of the 35th course of blocks, which is much thicker than any of the other courses, gives a figure for the precession of the equinoxes.

    [14:23] - Speed of Earth around the Sun: - The pyramid inch times 10**8 = the speed of the earth around the sun, circa 2600 B.C.

    [14:27] Mass of the Earth: The weight of the pyramid is estimated at 5,955,000 tons. Multiplied by 10**8 gives a reasonable estimate of the earth's mass.

    [11:153] Average Land Height: The average height of land above sea level for the earth is 5449 inches. This is also the height of the pyramid.

    [14:47] - The pyramid suggests a temperature system: 0 = freezing point of water, 50 = unvarying temp of Queen's Chamber, 250 = boiling point of water. Given this, then 1000 = temp of red hot iron, 4000 = temp that iron liquifies, and 5000 = temp of white heat and temp that platinum fuses. Nice round numbers.

    [39:45] - 5 cubic pyramid inches of earth of average density has the same mass as 1/(50x50) of the coffer's volume of water at a temperature that is 1/5th the difference between freezing and boiling.

    [39:90] - On midnight of the autumnal equinox in the year of the Great Pyramid's completion, a line extending from the apex pointed to the star Alcyone. Our solar system is thought by some to revolve around this star along with other solar systems much like the planets revolve around our sun.

    [14:48] - A line drawn on a map from the apex of the pyramid to Bethlehem = angle of the Ascending Passage and crosses the Red Sea at the most likely point that the Israelites crossed when departing Egypt (Parting of the Red Sea).

    [14:49] - A line drawn on a map south from the apex of the pyramid at the angle of the Ascending Passage crosses Mount Sinai {Mt. Horeb} (Ten Commandments).

    [14:66] - North Star Pointer: The Descending Passage pointed to the pole star Alpha Draconis, circa 2170-2144 B.C. This was the North Star at that point in time. No other star has aligned with the passage since then.

    [11:159] - The 344 ft. length of the Descending Passage provides an angle of view of only +/- 1/3 of a degree. Alpha Draconis has not been in alignment for thousands of years. The next alignment will be with the North Star, Polaris, in about 2004 A.D. Polaris in Greek means "Satan".

    [68:172] - The southern shaft in the King's Chamber (45 deg, 00 min, 00 sec) pointed to the star Al Nitak (Zeta Orionis) in the constellation Orion, circa 2450 B.C. The Orion constellation was associated with the Egyptian god Osiris. No other star aligned with this shaft during that Epoch.

    [68:172] - The northern shaft in the King's Chamber (32 deg, 28 min, 00 sec) pointed to the star Alpha Draconis, circa 2450 B.C.

    [68:172] - The southern shaft in the Queen's Chamber (39 deg, 30 min, 00 sec) pointed to the star Sirius, circa 2450 B.C. Sirius was associated with the Egyptian goddess Isis and is also part of a unique ceremony practiced by the African Dogon tribe.

    [68:172] - The northern shaft in the Queen's Chamber (39 deg, 00 min, 00 sec) pointed to the star Ursa Minor, circa 2450 B.C.

    [68:124] - Pyramids mirror Orion Constellation: The pyramid positions on the ground are a reflection of the positions of the stars in the constellation Orion circa 10,400 B.C. Five of the 7 brightest stars have pyramid equivalents: The 3 great pyramids of Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaura for the belt of Orion, the pyramid of Nebka at Abu Rawash corresponds to the star Saiph, the pyramid at Zawat al Aryan corresponds to the star Bellatrix. The only two missing star positions are for Betelgeuse and Rigel.

    [4:17] - The Light Equation: The height of the Great Pyramid, minus the height of the capstone represents one millionth the time it takes light to travel the mean radius of the earth's orbit around the sun (1 astronomical unit) using 1 pyramid inch equals 24 hours (mean solar day). { (5813.2355653 - 103.0369176) / 10**6 = .0057101986+ days = 493.36116 seconds = 8 minutes, 13.36 seconds }

    [14:45] - Pyramid as a crystal: If the pyramid were a clear crystal or glass prism, it would reflect sunlight at an angle of about 26.5 degrees. {the descending passing has an angle of about 26.30 degrees}

    [4:19] - The Velocity of Light: With distance of one A.U. known and the transit time of light for this same distance the velocity of light can be found. { 91,848,816.9 miles / 493.36+ seconds = 186,169.5 miles/sec }

    [4:26] - The Constant of Aberration of Light: - The telescope adjustment due to the speed of the earth as it moves through space when viewing stars. It is measured as an angle of tilt and is 20.2608+ seconds of arc. The difference in width between the upper Grand Gallery and Ascending Passage as measured from an axial line through the center is 20.26 pyramid inches.

    [4:30] - The Sun's Parallax: The size of the earth as viewed from the Sun and expressed as an angle and generally taken to be 1/2 the diameter at the equator (Solar Equatorial Parallax) is 8.9008091 seconds of arc using 91,848,817 miles as the mean distance to the sun and 3963.4914 miles as the equatorial radius. The distance between the mean socket level and the height of the leveled bedrock is 8.9008 PI.

    [4:258] - Earth's Volume: The product of the pyramid's volume and density times 10**15 equals the ratio of volume to density of the earth. {10,339,823.3 cubic cubits * 0.4078994 * 10**15 = 4.21760772 x 10**21 cubic cubits = 259.93 x 10**9 cubic miles}

    [4:266] - Earth's Mass: Mass of the pyramid = volume * density = 10,339,823.3 cubic cubits * 0.4078994 earth density = 4,217,497. The mass converted to pyramid tons = 4217607.72 * 1.25 = 5,272,010 pyramid tons. Since the mean density of the earth was defined as 1.0, then the mass of the earth is 10**15 times the mass in pyramid tons = 5.272 x 10*21 pyramid tons = 5.99 x 10**24 kg

    [4:275] - Gaussian Constant of Gravitation (k): The reciprocal of the distance between the Coffer and the north or south wall of the King's Chamber, minus one ten-billionth the bottom perimeter of the Coffer. {(1/58.13235 PI) - ((89.6578860+38.67063162 PI)*2 / 10**10) = 0.017202100 radians = 3 degrees, 5 minutes, 46.96 seconds of arc}


    NUMERICAL RELATIONS

    [39:46] - The word "pyramid" is from the Coptic "pyr" meaning division, and "met", meaning ten, "the division of ten".

    [14:29] - The difference between the distance of a straight line from corner to corner of the base and the curved line of the concave face is 286.1022, the Displacement Factor (DF)

    [14:30] - The ceiling of the Grand Gallery is 286.1 PI higher than the ceiling of the Ascending Passage.

    [14:31] - The perimeter of the base formed by the platform of the missing capstone = 2861 PI

    [14:32] - The center axis of the Great Step is located 35.76 PI east of the vertical axis of the pyramid. 35.76 *8 = 286.08

    [14:33] - The square base has a small depression halfway along each side of 35.76 PI deep. 35.76 * 8 = 286.08

    SEVENTEEN and 153

    [14:50] - The first four digits of DF (286.1022) add up to 17, the number of steps up to the entrance of the pyramid.

    [14:51] - The sum of the digits from 1 to 17 = 153, a number which appears multiple times in the pyramid.

    [14:52] - Jesus's public ministry lasted 918 days. (153 * 6)

    [14:53] - The number of fish caught by Jesus's disciples was 153. {John 21}

    [14:54] - The Grand Gallery is 153 feet long.

    [14:55] - If the 17 steps up to the entrance were continued to the peak there would be 153 steps.

    [14:56] - The center seam of the floor in the King's Chamber corresponds to March 4-5, 1945. The bombing of Hiroshima occurred 153 days later.

    FIVES

    [39:45] - There are 5 sides to a pyramid and 5 corners.

    [39:45] - There are 5x5 pyramid inches in a Sacred Cubit.

    [39:45] - The floor of the Queen's Chamber is on the 25th (5x5) course of blocks.

    [39:45] - The floor of the King's Chamber is 5x5 courses higher than the Queen's Chamber.

    [39:45] - The niche in the wall of the Queen's Chamber is 5x3 ft. high, it is corbelled with 5 stories, the top is 5x5 inches across, and the inner edge is 5x5 inches from the perpendicular center of the wall containing the niche.

    [39:45] - The King's Chamber has 5 courses of stone in each of it's 4 walls, and a total of 5x5x4 total stones in it's walls.

    [39:45] - The King's Chamber has 5 chambers above it.

    [39:45] - The coffer in the King's Chamber has 5 solid sides.

    [39:45] - The King's Chamber is 5x10 times the volume of the coffer.

    [39:45] - 5 cubic pyramid inches of earth of average density has the same mass as 1/(50x50) of the coffer's volume of water at a temperature that is 1/5th the difference between freezing and boiling.

    [39:45] - The coffer's interior volume is 50*50*50 cubic pyramid inches times 5.7, divided by 10. (5.7 is mean earth density)

    SEVENS

    The number 7 figures prominently in the Book of Revelation.

    [39:88] - The height of the Grand Gallery is 7 times the average height of the other passages.

    [39:88] - The Grand Gallery has 7 overlapping courses forming its sides.

    [39:88] - The Jubilee passage is 1/7th the length of the horizontal passage to the Queen's Chamber.

    [39:88] - The Queen's Chamber is a 7 sided room (gable roof is 2 sides)

    [39:88] - The volume of the peaked area of the Queen's Chamber above the walls is 1/7th the volume of the rest of the chamber from the floor to a level equal to the ceiling of the passageway which enters the chamber.

    SIMPSON PROPORTIONS OF KING's CHAMBER

    [4:12] - If we use a "unit dimension" for the King's Chamber of 103.03 PI, which is the length of the granite portion of the floor in the Antechamber to the King's Chamber measured north to south and also the theoretical height of the missing capstone, then the dimensions of the King's Chamber exhibit some interesting relationships:

    measure whose square is
    width UD * 2 4
    height UD * 223607 5
    length UD * 4 16
    end diagnonal UD * 3 9
    floor diagonal UD * 4.472 20
    side diagonal UD * 4.583 21
    solid diagnonal UD * 5 25
    sum of squares. 100

    [70:184] - The square of UD = the area of the four external sides of the coffer.

    [70:184] - One third of UD = the depth of the coffer.

    [70:184] - The square of UD divided by 2 Pi = the height of the coffer squared.

    [4:92] - If we use a "unit dimension" for the Queen's Chamber of 92.173077+ PI, then the dimensions of the Queen's Chamber exhibit some interesting relationships:


    height = UD * 2 whose square is: 4
    width = UD * 2.2360679+ whose square is: 5
    length = UD * 2.4494897+ whose square is: 6
    end diagonal = UD * 3 whose square is: 9
    floor diagonal = UD * 3.1622776+ whose square is: 10
    side diagonal = UD * 3.3166247 whose square is: 11
    solid diagonal = UD * 3.8729833+ whose square is: 15
    ------------------------------------------------------
    sum of squares of all 7 dimensions = 60
    gable height = UD * 2.6457513+ whose square is: 7


    PROPHECIES

    [11:161] - When years are substituted for inches, the passages of the Great Pyramid become a prophetic calendar.

    [11:161] - The start of the Great Pyramid's construction was 2623 B.C.

    [11:160] - The only markings in the pyramid are in the Descending Passage at 482 PI inches from the pyramid face. This represents the last year the Pole Star was aligned with the passage, 2141 B.C.

    [83:225] - The start of the construction of the Great Pyramid is recorded at 2523 B.C. via a scribed mark on the wall of the descending passage perpendicular to the floor of the passage. All other stone joints in the passage are vertical to the horizon.

    [39:85] - The start of the construction of the Great Pyramid is recorded at circa 2170 B.C. via a scribed mark on the wall of the descending passage.

    [11:160] - 1170 PI (years) from the construction start date to the point where the Ascending Passage meets the Descending Passage.

    [11:161] - 1485 PI (years) from junction of Ascending/Descending passage to start of the Grand Gallery.

    [11:165] - 1881-1/3 PI (years) in length of Grand Gallery.

    [14:43] - The ancient Hebrews used units of measure that were the same length as the pyramid inch and Sacred Cubit.

    [14:35] - Red Granite appears in the pyramid apparently to mark special events in conjunction with prophetic events related to the Jews.

    [11:159] - The red granite is fairly rare and identical with that of Mt. Horeb {Mt. Sinai}, the mountain on which Moses is said to have received the Ten Commandments.

    [14:36] - The empty coffer in the King's Chamber is made of red granite.

    [4:251] - A portion of the floor in the Antechamber to the King's Chamber is red granite and corresponds to the "unit dimension" of the King's Chamber.

    [14:64] - A red granite stone, triangular in shape, appears on a false door at the intersection of the Ascending and Descending passages. This corresponds to the prophecy year of circa 1486 B.C. (Hebrews depart Egypt under Moses)

    [14:37] - The cubic capacity of the coffer = same as Ark of Covenant made by Moses {Exodus 25}

    [70:272] - The Ark of the Covenant was 2.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 Sacred Cubits. Guessing the thickness of the sides as 1.8 PI gives a volume of 71,282 cubic pyramid inches vs. the volume of the coffer of 71250 cubic pyramid inches.

    [14:20] - The pyramid inch and sacred cubit are found as raised images on a red granite plaque at the entrance to the Antechamber of King's room.

    [14:34] - The length of the diagonals of the floor of the Antechamber are 666 PI. {Revelation 13, mark of the Beast}

    [14:76] - There were 144,000 casing stones {Revelation 7, servants of God given seals during the apocalypse}

    [83:225] - Birth of Adam, 4128.25 B.C.

    [11:161] - Exodus of Israelites from Egypt, 1453 B.C. {junction of Ascending & Descending passages}

    [83:226] - Birth of Jesus, Sept. 29, 2 B.C. {intersection of Queen's Chamber floor level with Ascending Passage}

    [4:160] - Birth of Jesus, about autumnal equinox, 2 B.C.

    [83:226] - Baptism of Jesus, Oct. 14, 29 A.D.

    [36,161] - Baptism of Jesus, Oct. 5, 29 A.D.

    [83:226] - Crucifixion of Jesus, April 3, 33 A.D. {beginning of Grand Gallery}

    [11:161] - Start of WWI, 1914 A.D. {end of Grand Gallery}


    MISCELLANEOUS

    [117,101] - On May 26th, 1837, J. R. Hill, working for Howard Vyse, was clearing the exit point for the southern airshaft of the King's Chamber where it exited at the 102nd course. After removing two outer tiers of stone, an "Iron Plate" was found wedged between some inter stone joints. The plate was roughly 12" x 4" and 1/8" thick. This iron could prove that the Iron Age of Egypt, currently placed at no earlier than 650 B.C. could actually predate that time by 2000 years! This iron plate is now in the British Museum.
    [117,106] - Optical and chemical tests were finally performed some 108 years later in 1989 on the iron plate. The results reported by the metallurgical experts were that the metal was iron, not of meteoric orgin, that was formed by smelting at between 1000 and 1100 degrees Centrigrade. There were traces of gold on one face of the plate, as if it had at one time been gold plated. The evidence, the report concluded, would suggest that the iron plate had indeed been in place since the Pyramid was built.

    [14:10] - The pyramid is the only remaining structure of the 7 wonders of the ancient world.

    [14:5] - The polished surfaces of the original mantle reflected heat, sunlight, and moonlight and was probably used as to aid Nile river navigation at night.

    [18:23] - Forty-two pharaohs built pyramids. The great pyramid was built during the reign of Khufu, also known as Cheops. He was the first pharaoh of the IVth dynasty, 2789-2716 B.C.

    [18:269] - Of the nearly 100 pyramids built by 42 pharaohs, only the partial remains of 8 pharaohs have ever been found, and only 23 sarcophagi have been found.

    [18:61] - The pharaoh Khufu reigned for 23 years from 2789 to 2767 B.C.

    [14:69] - No Pharaoh's body, treasure, or treasure chamber was ever found in the Great Pyramid.

    [70:100] - Khufu and Cephren are reported to have commanded friends to bury them in an obscure place. The people were exasperated against them by reason of the burden of the construction work, and for their cruelty and oppression, and threatened to tear their bodies to pieces after their deaths.

    [70:100] - Another report is that Khufu was buried in an underground tomb which was flooded by the spring Nile. Such a tomb exists approximatley 1000 ft. to the southeast of the Great Pyramid.

    [18:71] - There is only one known statue of Khufu, a small 3" high ivory statuette.

    [83:87] - No mummy has ever been found in a pyramid in Egypt. Mummies have always come from mastabas or tombs in the Valley of the Kings.

    [18:23] - The word "pharaoh" is from the Hebrew interpretation of the Egyptian "per aa", originally meaning "the great house".

    [11:167] - The word "pyramid" is composed of the Greek words "pyra" meaning fire, light, or visible, and the word "midos" meaning measures.

    [83:90] - Between 1300-1700 A.D. mummy flesh was ground into powder and used in Europe as medicinal aids.

    [83:91] - Mummy powder has also been used for artist paints.

    [83:91] - Mummy wrappings were at one time used to make paper and burned in fireplaces by poor Egyptians.

    [14:68] - The pyramids of Giza are among the oldest man-made structures in existence.

    [68:13] - Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.

    [68:15] - The Greek (Egyptian) names of the pharaohs who ruled during the construction of the 3 great pyramids are: Cheops (Khufu), Chephren (Khafra), Mycerinos (Menkaura).

    [68:13] Cleopatra was the last pharaonic ruler of Egypt before it fell to Rome in 30 B.C.

    [11:157] - The first recorded forced entry into the Great Pyramid was by the Arab Abdullah Al Manun, caliph of Baghdad, in 820 A.D.

    [102:63] - Initially, after the 5 chambers above the King's Chamber were opened, those that entered the 2nd chamber were turned black by a powder which existed only in that chamber. It was analyzed and determined to be the dust from the cast off shells and skins of insects.

    [18:17] - Most pyramids were accompanied by smaller satellite pyramids usually built to the south and east of the main pyramid. Some were tombs for queen's and princesses. Most of the structures were mastabas built to entomb the pharaoh's family, members of royalty, and the priestly class.

    [18:271] - In nearly all of the pyramids and tombs, it was a general practice that the burial chamber was oriented slightly west of the north/south center line of the pyramid.

    [14:41] - In ancient Egypt, Pharaoh's wives were never buried with them in pyramids or tombs, they were buried separately.

    [18:25] - Pharaoh's had 5 different names.

    [70:108] - According to burial custom, the use of the stone coffer in the King's Chamber for burial would have required the engraving of the deceased's name, titles, deeds, and history on the inside and out.


    REFERENCE CONSTANTS

    from: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Astronomy, 1982, ISBN 0-07-045251-2
    Aberration of Light = 20.496 seconds of arc
    Average Days in Calendar Year = 365.2425 days (400 year leap-year cycle)
    Light Year = 5.879 x 10**12 mi
    Mass of the Earth = 5.975 x 10**24 kg = 6.586 x 10**21 tons
    Mean Distance from Sun = 149,597,870,000 meters = 92,937,200 mi.
    Mean Distance to Moon = 238,247 mi
    Mean Earth Velocity = 66,600 mi/hr
    Mean Earth Density = 5.53 g / cu. cm = 90.620464 grams / cu. inch
    Mean Earth Equatorial Radius = 6378.160 km = 3969.96 miles
    Mean Earth Polar Radius = 6356.775 km = 3956.65 miles
    Mean Sun Radius = 6.960 +/- .001 x 10**5 km = 432,470 mi.
    Moon Synodical Month = 29.5305882 days
    Precession of Equinox = 25,800 years (approx)
    Sidereal Year = 365.25636 days
    Tropical Year = 365.24220 days
    Velocity of Light = 186,291 mi/sec

    from: Science and Technology Desk Reference, 1993, Gale Carnegie Library
    Mean Circumference of Moon = 6790 mi
    Mean Circumference of Earth = 24902 miles at equator, 24860 miles at poles
    Mean Distance to Moon = 238,857 mi
    Mean Diameter of Moon = 2159 mi
    Mean Diameter of Earth = 7926 miles at equator
    Mean Distance from Sun = 92,955,900 mi
    Moon Sidereal Month = 27.32166 days
    Velocity of Light = 186,282 mi/sec

    from: Physics, 1966, D. Halliday & R. Resnick, ISBN 0-471-34524-5
    Mean Radius of Earth = 6.37 x 10**6 m = 3960 miles
    Mass of earth = 5.98 x 10**24 kg
    Density of water (@ 20 deg. Celsius) = 1.00 x 10**3 kg/ cu. meter
    Pi = 3.14159 26535 89793 23846+

    Derived Values from Reference Constants:
    Mean Earth Radius = (3969.96 + 3956.65) / 2 = 3963.305 miles
    Earth Surface Area = 4 * Pi * (3963.305 mi)**2 = 197,389,867 sq. mi.
    Earth Volume = 4/3 * Pi * (3963.305 mi)**3 = 260.772 x 10**9 cubic miles.


    REFERENCE SOURCES:
    [0:] - Derived by editor from numbers and standard geometric formulas presented elsewhere in this text.
    [4:] -
    The Authorship and Message of the Great Pyramid, 1953, Julian T. Gray, E. Steinmann & Co., OH
    [5:] - Back in Time 3104 B.C. to the Great Pyramid, 1990, S. G. Taseos, ISBN 0-9626053-0-1
    [11:] - The Delicate Balance, 1989, John Zajac, ISBN 0-910311-57-9
    [14:] - Dramatic Prophecies of the Great Pyramid, 1974, Rodolfo Benavides, ISBN 0-914732-00-5
    [18:] - The Egyptian Pyramids: A Comprehensive & Illustrated Reference, 1990, J.P. Lepre, ISBN 0-89950-461-2
    [39:] - The Great Pyramid: A Miracle in Stone, 1973, Joseph A. Seiss, ISBN 0-06-067211-0
    [68:] - The Orion Mystery: Unlocking the Secrets of the Pyramids, 1994, R. Bauval & A. Gilbert, ISBN 0-517-59903-1
    [70:] - Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid, 1891, C. Piazzi Smyth, ISBN 0-89345-029-4
    [83:] - Pyramid Prophecies, 1988, Max Toth, ISBN 0-89281-203-6
    [88:] - The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, 1885, W.M. Flinders Petrie, ISBN 1-85417-051-1
    [102:] - Secrets of the Great Pyramid, 1978, Peter Tompkins, ISBN 0-06-090631-6
    [117:] - The Message of the Sphinx, 1996, Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval, ISBN 0-517-70503-6

    Go to my Pyramid Books reference list
    Go to selected book reviews of Pyramid Books


    Compiled 1994-2001 by Tim G. Hunkler, no rights reserved.
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