Selected Pictures and Diagrams on the Great Pyramid
by Tim Hunkler [click HERE for info on contacting me]
last revised: 18-Aug-2001

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I particularly like older photos of the Pyramid and the Sphinx, before the surrounding area was setup for tourism. Of course, back then the Sphinx was nearly buried in the sand!

The above diagram is a cross section of the Great Pyramid showing the relative position of the major points of interest: There are two entrances. The first is the original entrance which is on the North face and opens to the Descending Passage. The second is the forced entrance created when the Pyramid was broken into and is shown by the darker tunnel. The descending passage continues beneath the blocks of the Pyramid and into the bedrock beneath and eventually leads to the horizontal shaft which connects to the Pit or also called the Room of Chaos.

The Ascending Passage still has three major stone plugs blocking its upward journey where it connects with the Descending Passage but they have been tunneled around. Farther up the Ascending Passage are to be found the three girdle stones. Next comes both the horizontal passage to the Queen's Chamber and the entrance to the Grand Gallery. Here also is found a tunnelled passageway connecting the Ascending Passage to the Descending Passage through a very long, narrow, and twisty tunnel which appears to have been dug after the construction of the Great Pyramid and from the bottom up. Midway between is a larger cavity known as the Grotto.

At the top of the Grand Gallery is a horizontal passageway into room called the Antechamber which appears to have had 3 rock portucullus slabs to block the entrance to the Kings Chamber which lies just beyond. Above the King's Chamber and connected from a small well shaft found at the top of the Grand Gallery is the first of 5 chambers thought to have been engineered to relieve the weight of the stones the Great Pyramid above the Kings Chamber.

Both the Queen's Chamber and the King's Chamber have two air shafts which make a number of minor turns and exit the faces of the Pyramids. They at one time appear to have pointed to specific stars. Curiously, the air shafts in the Queens Chamber stopped a few inches short of the Chamber and did not connect all of the way to the chamber. Click on thumbnail to see the full picture, 168KB
The above picture is a composite areal view of the Giza Plateau.

Another view of the passages and chambers of the Great Pyramid. But unfortunately, the size reductions result in much loss of clarity from the original.

The Great Pyramid is the only pyramid which employed a ball and socket construction technique in the four corners. A socket was dug into the bedrock into which was layed corner foundation stones. By using a mortise and tenon on the blocks of the corners the Great Pyramid was affectively protected agains shifts of the rocks due to expansion as well as protected from earthquakes.

To a human standing on the ground near the Great Pyramid the faces appeared flat. However, when viewed from a distance with just the right lighting it can be seen that the faces have a very slight concave curve. This was apparently intentionaly and the sketch shows the underlying block construction that was used to produce the curvature. No other pyramid exhibits this intentional curvature.

According to descriptions by an ancient historian Herodotus, the original door of the Great Pyramid was hinged at the top, and swung outward. According to accounts of Al Mamoun, who created the forced entrance and followed the Descending Passage back up to the original door, the door was so well balanced that a single man could open it from the inside, but when shut was nearly invisible and impossible to open from the outside. These are sketches by J.P. Lepre based on the descriptions of Herodotus. But neither sketch would seem to illustrate a door that closed without showing any cracks.

The diagram above is a sketch by J.P. Lepre [18,294] which illustrates a door that would swing inward and when closed would have no cracks. It requires a cutout at the top of the passageway as well as a cutout at the bottom, both of which are consistent with the Descending Passage.

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Above, a photo from reference [117,167] of the view looking down the descending passageway. Very nearly perfectly straight along its 350 foot length.

"The Pit" or also known as the Pit of Despair and Chamber of Chaos. At the bottommost level of the Great Pyramid, a short horizontal distance from the end of the Descending Passageway is a subterranean chamber carved out of the solid limestone bedrock. It appears to have been left in an unfinished state and was perhaps the source of the rock used for other interior parts of the Great Pyramid or the source of the plugs used to seal the passageways. Curiously, although the floor is very uneven and the walls are rough, the ceiling is flat and smooth. A horizontal shaft some 30" x 30" extends to the left for 53 ft. in a snakelike manner and culminates in a little cul-de-sac. The "pit" is some 8'x8' and extends downward some 60'. About 10' down is a ledge with a large block of granite lodged there. According to J.P. Lepre, the last known escavation attempts of the "pit" were in 1865 and were abandoned when the workers had difficulting breathing in the stale air. The tomb of Queen Hetepheres, Kufu's mother, was found at the bottom of a similar inconspicous shaft nearly 100 ft. deep! Apparently the Egyptians thought that they could hide the tomb's location by disguising it as a lowly side shaft, unworthy of a tomb.

Spaced at intverals along the Ascending Passage way between the juncture to the Descending Passage and the Grand Gallery are found girdle stones. Once passing the blocking plugs at the beginning of the Ascending Passageway the stone blocks of the Ascending Passage are parallel to the slope of the passage but the girdle stones are not and are aligned vertically. The passageway actually contains four full girdle stones, constructed from a single block, and three half girdles, constructed as an upper and lower half. These girdle stones acted to support the weight of the remaining stones above.

Above is a detail of a full girdle stone. The full girdle stones are truly massive as the center opening is nearly four feet square. The transport and installation of such large single stones is another amazing construction mystery. The girdle stones are also designed to be floating from the passageway.

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Above, a photo from reference [117,167] of the Queen's Chamber. From the book "The Message of the Sphinx" by Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval. The authors appear in the photo, from left to right: John Anthony West, Robert Bauval, Graham Hancock.

At the juncture of the Ascending Passage, the start of the Grand Gallery, and the horizontal passage to the Queens' Chamber is found the Christ Angle. According to popular prophecy theories, 1 Pyramid Inch equals one year and the reference point is the vertical "scored line" located approximately 40 feet from the entrance down the Descending Passage. The scored line is thought to coincide with noon of the spring equinox in the year 2141 B.C. At this time the descending passageway was in perfect alignment with the star Alcyone of the Pleiades. Using this date and reference, and measuring certain other points along the way contribute to the dates of:

Birth of Christ - 29th Sept., 2 B.C. {intersection of the level of the floor of the Queens Chamber with the Ascending Passage}

Crucifixion of Christ - 3rd April, 33 A.D {intersection of the start of the Grand Gallery with the Ascending Passage}

The view at the top of the Grand Gallery looking into the passage to the King's Chamber. The grand gallery is some 28 feet high and composed of 7 stone layers. Each layer is set in some 3 inches so that the gallery narrows from 7 ft at the bottom to about 3-1/2 feet at the ceiling. Some 40 overlapping stones form the ceiling. There is a set of parallel groves in the 3rd layer some 7 inches high that run the length of the Grand Gallery. Some theories are that the stones that plugged the descending passageway were originally stored in the ceiling cavity of the Grand Gallery. Other theories are that the ceiling was originally lined with cedar.

Side view of the King's Chamber and Antechamber found at the top of the Grand Gallery. There is evidence in the Antechamber of the existence at one time of at least 3 portcullis slabs, evidently for blocking access to the King's Chamber.

Another view of the King's Chamber showing the five different relieving chambers constructed above it. It is believed that the chambers were designed to relieve the tremendous weight above the King's Chamber. The topmost chamber is gabled and translates the weight to the walls. One of the chambers's wall are limestone which is more easily crushed than the granite of the other chambers to accomodate shifts and settling. The walls of the King's Chamber are not connected to the floor to further isolate the floor from any shifting or settling.

View showing the air shafts to both the King's and Queen's Chambers. The air shafts to the Queens' Chamber originally stopped a few inches short of piercing through the blocks of the walls, but once discovered, were opened up the remainder of the way. The southern air shaft in the King's Chamber extends some 175 feet before exiting the Great Pyramid at the 101st stone course while the northern air shaft extends some 235 feet.

The air passage on the southern wall of the King's Chamber changes shape three times. It starts out domed shaped, then shifts to an oval, and finally to a rectangular oblong shape. All together it undergoes two sharp bends. The northern air channel is consistently rectangular in shape, but takes four turns in direction as it connects to the outside.

A possible access to a secret room in the King's Chamber. According to J.P. Lepre, if you examine all of the wall joints of the stones in the King's Chamber you can discover that on the bottom level of the West wall the endmost stone has joints which are larger than the other stones. These larger joints have been filled in with a plaster to match the mortar and make them blend in. He believes this was done by the original builders and that this stone is a highly likely location for an access to another tunnel or chamber.

An interior picture of the topmost relieving chamber above the King's Chamber, known as Cambell's Chamber. Although the picture quality is poor you can make out some graffiti on the ceiling and walls. The topmost chamber has a gabled roof almost 7 feet high. The huge stones in the gabled roof act to distribute the great weight of the masonry above onto the side walls of the relieving chambers.

An interior picture of the fourth relieving chamber above the Kings's Chamber, known as Lady Arbuthnot's Chamber in honor of her visit while Howard Vyse was discovering the various chambers in 1837. This is a picture of the floor. The floor sections of the fourth chamber have deep grooves. There are some red ocher lines not found in the other relieving chambers. Some hieroglyphics as well. The side walls are made of limestone, unlike the three chambers below which have sidewalls of granite. This is assumed to be a building technique used to compensate for the great weight pressing down from above. Some crushing of the limestone was expected to occur rather than cracking of granite.

An interior picture of the third relieving chamber above the Kings Chamber, known as Nelson's Chamber. Here the large stones making up the floor are very uneven in height and thickness, however, the ceiling of the chamber below (Wellington's Chamber) is fairly even. Nelson's Chamber is reported to have the best preserved hieroglyphics from the quarry teams.

A possible marker for a secret entrance to the Great Pyramid as suggested by J.P. Lepre. He has observed that all tunnels, room entrances, and the like are accompanied by variations in the stonework and joints near these entrances. He has located a huge oblong stone outside of the Great Pyramid that is set flush but at an angle with the rest of the masonry. His suggestion is that this could be a cover for a passageway or chamber.

The Great Pyramid Text of Scripture, Isaah 19:19-20, in Hebrew. This diagram illustrates yet another numerical relationship!

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